FLOKA INDICA, 73
away. In many species, indeed, this leaf is occasionally developed, and in some it
is normally so.
The nature of the integuments of the seed faMagnoliacea has generally 'been
misunderstood, except bf Gartner, whose account is quite accurate. The true struc-.
ture has recently been pointed out by Asa Gray (Genera of N. Am. Plants, i 61).
The outermost coat, which is fleshy, and often of a bright scarlet colour, has gene-
rally been considered an arillus ; it has, however, been traced by Asa Gray to the
primine of the ovule, fend correctly regarded as testa. It is traversed in its whole
length from the hilum to the chalaza at the~opposite end of the seed by the rhaphe.
The inner crustaceous coat, usually considered as testa, is conspicuously marked at
the cud most remote from the hilum by the ohalaza. A third coat may be distin-
guished, consisting of a very delicate membrane, which adheres pretty firmly to the ,
Dr. Wallich appears to have made a curious mistake as to the position of the em-
bryo, unless indeed (in the Tent. Fl. Nap. p. 4) for ' umbilicus internus* we ought to
read * externus? in which case his view would be the same as that suggested by Blume
(Fl. Javas, p. 9), that the true hilum is where the brittle seed-coat is 'inserted into
the fleshy one, — a view which is manifestly only tenable on the supposition that the
latter is arillus.
The lateral position of the rhaphe with respect to the ovule and seed is worthy of
note. It is well represented by Mr. Sprague in the plates of Asa Gray's work just
quoted, but is not noticed in the text.
The plants of this f "ily are- all more or less aromatic, and their flowers have
often an extremely powerful perfume. The Himalayan species are large trees, and
yield valuable timber.' The bark of mauy of the American species possesses bitter and
tonic qualities, but none of those of India arc known to do so. In the tribe -Illiciea
these tonic and aromatic properties are more marked.; but their 'presence in the whole
Order is indicated by the transparent dots of the flower, and by the glandular mark-
ings of the woody tissue.
The species of Magnotiaceat are chiefly natives of mountainous countries. Thej>
are probably more abundant in Western China, in eastern continental India, and in
the Indian Archipelago, tlxan in any other part of the world. Many species occur
in the more humid parts of the temperate Himalaya, but one only extends as -far
west as Kumaon. The western peninsula produces only two species, and Ceylon not
more than one. From China several extend to Japan. North America, excluding'
Mexico, which seems to contain several species of this family, produces eight species.
A few are natives of the West Indies and the mountainous parts of tropical South
America. In Africa they appear to be entirely wanting.
Tribus I. WiNTEBJ&as, E. Br.
Tvaria aimplici serie vertioillata vel solitaria* Stiptda nullce.
1* ILLICIUM, L.
Mores hermaphroditi. Sepala et petala 12-36, mtdtiserialia. Sta-
mina numerosa, antheris adnatis. Ovaria 6-15, stylo subulate intus
stigmatoso apiculata. Owla solitaria, e basi loculi adscendentia. —
Frutices sempervirentes aromatici ; foliis Megerrimis, fflafois, ad ramo-
rum apices confer ti* ; ftoribus axillaribust sofctams vel terms, flamdi* vel
Two species of this genus are natives of the wanner parts of the eastern United
States, one inhabits Japan, and one Southern China. The Indian species will pro-
bably also be found to extend into the interior of Southern China, The fruit of the